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女形とは

歌舞伎の舞台では、その三百余年の伝統にしたがって女の役をすべて男が演じる。これを女形という。女形という言葉には二つの意味があって、第一には男が女を演じる演技の総体といい、第二にそれを専門の業とする俳優をいう。
どちらにしても、男が女を演じて女に見え、あるいは女以上に女らしく見えるということは容易なことではない。そういうことを可能にしたのは、歌舞伎の舞台が虚構としての独特の場(トポス)をつくっているからである。
このトポスの中では、男が女に見えるための無数のコードがつくられている。髪、化粧、衣装、小道具から、発声、体の動きまで。たとえば女形は笑った時に袂で顔をかくす。袂に隠された空無。そこに観客のイメージが広がる。あるいは女形が嫉妬に狂った女を演じる時、その怒りは心理描写や表情にあらわれるのではなく、まず髪がくずれ、衣装がかわり、体の動きがかわる。あくまで顔は美しくなければならない。もし顔だけで芝居をしようとすれば、そこには男の顔があらわれるからである。これが女形のコードであり、このコードによって美しい女があらわれる。

Created around the year 1600, the history of Kabuki is as long as that of the united states and just as multifaceted. While it barely scratches the surface, the brief description of the history of Kabuki that follows will attempt to give a general overview.

Okumi, a shrinr maiden from the Izumo Shrine, is credited for dreating the first Kabuki. Her performances in the dry riverbeds of the ancient capital of Kyoto caused a sensation and soon their audience scale increased and a number of rival companies arose. Early kabuki was much different from what is seen today and was comprised mostly of large ensemble dances performed by women. Most of these women acted as prostitutes off stage and finally the government banned women from the stage in an effort to protect public moral, just one in a long history of government restrictions placed on the theater.

This ban on women, though is often seen as good because it necessitated the importance of skill over beauty and put more stress on drama than dance, putting Kabuki on the path to become a dramatic art form. Another development was the appearance of onnagata female role specialists, men who played women.

The last quarter of the 17th century is referred to as the Genroko period and was a time of renaissance in culture of Japanese townspeople. As the main from of theatrical entertainment for commoners, there was a great flowering of creativity in Kabuki. It was during this period that the stylizations that would form the base of Kabuki were created. The playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon and actors like Ichikawa Danjuro and Sakura Tojuro left strong legacies that can still be seen today. It was also during this period that the close relationship between kabuki and the bunraku puppet theater began and the two would continue to grow while influencing each other.

The decades after the Genroku period saw numerous cycles of creativity followed by refinement. In the early 18th century, the rise of skilled playwrights in the bunraku puppet theater helped it to briefly eclipse Kabuki in popularity. Indeed, it was remarked by one observer that it seemed as though “there was no kabuki.” Actors responded by adapting puppet plays for the stage and creating stylized movements to mimic the puppets themselves. The late 18th century saw a trend towards realism and the switch of the cultural center from Kyoto and Osaka to Edo. One consequence of this was the change of tastes in onnagata acting. While onnagata trained in Kyoto who had the soft, gentle nature of that city had been valued before, now audiences desire for decadence as seen in the ghost plays and beautification of murder scences marked early 19th century.

The opening of Japan to the west in 1868 affected kabuki and the rest of the country profoundly. Though it was freed from the numerous government restrictions, kabuki was faced with the important challenge of how to adapt to a changing world. Actors like Ichikawa Danjuro IX strove to raise the reputation of Kabuki, which since its beginning had been seen as base by upper classes, while others like Onoe  kikugoro V worked to adapt old styles to new tastes. The defining moment of the period, and a symbol of the success of their efforts, was a command performance before the Emperor Meiji.

Though Kabuki survived government oppression during the edo period, the loss of many young actors in world war II and censorship by occupation forces after the war, it faces its most difficult enemies in modern forms of entertainment like movies and television. Its position as a traditional” form of theater often makes it seem stuffy and people are not as familiar with the special peculiarities of Kabuki as the used to be. Still, popular actors continue to bring audiences into the theater and there as recently been a Kabuki boom” centered on young people. Kabuki continues to be a form of entertainment enjoyed by a wide range of people, just as it has been for 400 years.